Friday, December 15, 2017

The lost caravanserais of the Silk Road in Afghanistan have recently been uncovered using satellite imagery. Here, a satellite image of a 17th century carvanserai, or waystation.Credit: Digitalglobe, Inc.
Spy satellite imagery is revealing lost Silk Road outposts and the traces of vanished empires in the forbidding desert regions of Afghanistan, new research reveals.

The new archaeological insights come from decades of imagery collected by commercial and spy satellites and drones, Science reported. Among the finds: huge caravanserai, or outposts used by Silk Road travelers for millennia, and subterranean canals that were buried by the desert sands.

The archaeological sites are too dangerous to explore in person, so the new mapping effort, which is funded by a $2 million grant from the U.S. State Department, enables researchers to study Afghanistan's archaeological heritage safely, experts said in November at a meeting of the American Schools of Oriental Research in Washington, D.C.

"I'd expect tens of thousands of archaeological sites to be discovered. Only when these sites are recorded can they be studied and protected," David Thomas, an archaeologist at La Trobe University in Melbourne, Australia, who has done remote sensing work in Afghanistan but is not a member of the mapping team, told Science.

Some of the most striking sites are massive caravanserai used by Silk Road travelers that date to the 17th century. These mudbrick waystations could house hundreds of people and their livestock and were interspersed every 12 miles (20 kilometers)—the distance caravans could travel in a day before resting, Science reported. [In Photos: 1,500-Year-Old Cemetery Discovered Along Silk Road]

The Silk Road was a massive network of routes spanning the globe from Japan and Korea in the East to the Mediterranean Sea in the West. For centuries, luxuries such as tea, precious gems, perfume, spices and of course, silk, from the East made their way west along these land-based routes, according to UNESCO.

At the midpoint of Central Asia, the geographic region that is now Afghanistan sat at the crossroads of these ancient trade routes, and thus profited from all the trade that flowed through the region. When the Silk routes were flourishing, empires in the region amassed great wealth, according to the United Nations Assistance Missions in Afghanistan (UNAMA).
Aerial imagery of Tar-o-Sar, where remains of ancient Parthian civilization have been unearthed.Credit: Digitalglobe, Inc.
The conventional wisdom was that once sea routes opened between India and China and the West in the 15th and 16th centuries, these caravan routes, and the once-wealthy empires that benefited from them, declined, according to UNAMA. However, the new spy satellite imagery reveals that these trade routes were still thriving a few centuries later.

The effort is also uncovering lost history from other periods of time. Images collected in the 1970s are being reexamined to reveal hidden canals that thread through the Helmand and Sistan provinces of the country, Science reported.  These canals were likely built during the Parthian Empire and helped agriculture to flourish. The imagery has also revealed the melting pot of religions that once thrived in the area, from Zoroastrian fire temples to Buddhist stupas.

Spy Satellites Reveal Ancient Lost Empires in Afghanistan

 Underwater archaeologist Matej Školc carefully excavates the foundations of an ancient harbour structure. Photograph: Vassilis Tsiairis/Lechaion Harbour Project

New archaeological excavations at the ancient port of Corinth have uncovered evidence of large-scale Roman engineering. Named Lechaion, the port was one of a pair that connected the city of ancient Corinth to Mediterranean trade networks. Lechaion is located on the Gulf of Corinth, while Kenchreai is positioned across the narrow Isthmus of Corinth on the Aegean Sea. These two strategic harbours made Corinth a classical period power, but the Romans destroyed the city in 146 BC when conquering Greece. Julius Caesar rebuilt the city and its harbours in 44 BC, ushering in several centuries of prosperity. Recent excavations by the Lechaion Harbour Project have revealed the impressive engineering of the Roman Empire.

Caesar’s Corinthian colony developed into one of the most important ports in the eastern Mediterranean. Ships filled Lechaion with international goods and Corinth became so well known for luxury and vice that a Greek proverb stated, “not everyone can afford to go to Corinth.” However, while ancient coins depict a formidable harbour with a large lighthouse, visible remains of Lechaion are scarce. Visitors to the coastline today can see the foundations of two large structures forming the outer harbour, but otherwise the remains are buried under centuries of sediment. The excavations are beginning to reveal the secrets of this largely forgotten port.
 Underwater archaeologists Matej Školc and Alex Tourtas excavate in the Outer Harbour. Photograph: Spyros Kokkinakis & Bjørn Lovén/Lechaion Harbour Project
The team has found a complex harbour that changed over time. In the 1st century AD, Lechaion had a large outer harbour of 40,000 square meters and an inner harbour of 24,500 square meters. The basins, as well as the approach to the harbour, were delineated by large moles and quays constructed of stone blocks weighing five tons each, including one mole that is 45 metres in length and 18 metres wide. A number of monumental buildings once graced Lechaion, such as a lighthouse that is depicted on coins and a monumental structure on an island in the middle of the inner basin. The island monument remains a mystery, but archaeologists speculate that it could be a religious sanctuary, the base of a large statue, or a customs office. However, the island was used for only a brief period. “The island monument was destroyed by an earthquake between 50 and 125 AD. It may well be the first evidence of the earthquake of circa AD 70 under the emperor Vespasian mentioned in ancient literary sources,” says Guy Sanders, who previously directed excavations at Corinth. By the 6th century AD, a new basin measuring approximately 40,000 square metres had to be constructed to service Byzantine Corinth. Sediment had filled areas of the earlier basins and a huge earthquake lifted the area around Lechaion by over a metre.
A pristinely preserved two-thousand-year-old wooden post. Photograph: Angeliki Zisi/Lechaion Harbour Project
The stone block structures are impressive feats of engineering, but the project is revealing information about the process of harbour construction through wooden caissons and pilings used as foundations. Wooden elements rarely survive the centuries, but buried underwater deposits are one of the few places where organic materials can be preserved. “For almost two decades I have been hunting for the perfect archaeological context where all the organic material normally not found on land is preserved” says director Bjørn Lovén. While much can be inferred from the stone remains, the discovery of wooden elements provides more insight into the ancient engineering process. Wood is the holy grail for archaeologists and some of the artifacts discovered at Lechaion are so well preserved that they appear as though they were cut yesterday. Lovén says, “I was joking that I would rather find a wooden spoon than a statue, and we did find archaeological layers where almost everything is preserved.” Besides wooden infrastructure, the team excavated delicate organics finds including seeds, bones, part of a wooden pulley, and carved pieces of wood.

The archaeologists are also finding evidence of everyday life in ancient Corinth. They have found ceramics that transported trade goods that originate from Italy, Tunisia, and Turkey. Maritime items like anchors and fish hooks tell of life along the seaside.

The work at Lechaion is located in shallow water, but it presents several significant challenges. It is a highly active marine environment, which causes the excavation trenches to fill quickly with sediment from wave action. Overnight several tons of sand can build up in the excavation areas. The team is also pushing boundaries with the latest methods scientific methods. Geoarchaeologists used core drilling and drone surveys to map the coastal changes in the area, resulting in the surprising discovery of a new harbour basin. The sediment study is showing how the harbour silted over time and which areas would have been accessible in different periods. The project is using DNA analysis to understand the “genetic landscape” of the trees, plants, and animals that inhabited the region 2,000 years ago. The information from these different scientific methods may one day allow for a reconstruction of Lechaion in each time period.

The project is a cooperation between the Danish Institute at Athens, University of Copenhagen, and the Greek Ephorate of Underwater Antiquities. It is directed by Dr Bjørn Lovén and Dr Dimitris Kourkoumelis, as well as assistant directors Paraskevi Micha and Panagiotis Athanasopoulos. The excavation is funded by Her Majesty the Queen Margrethe II’s Archaeological Foundation, Augustinus Foundation, and Carlsberg Foundation. The excavation will continue next year and it is expected to reveal more information about ancient engineering. “The potential for more unique discoveries is mind blowing” says Lovén.


New underwater discoveries in Greece reveal ancient Roman engineering

Saturday, October 28, 2017

Library: Studies | Ancient Texts / Books Other | Latest posts
Magisterium Paparum, De Ecclæsiæ Catholicæ Magisterio, MULTILINGUAL CATHOLIC | Language: LatinFrenchEnglishAncient Greek, RussianPolish, Italian

           0033-0067- Petrus, Sanctus, Martyres
 000,136Kb       0033-0067- SS Petrus - Descrizione archeologica della Tomba - IT.doc Italian
           0067-0076- Linus, Sanctus
           0076-0088- Anacletus I, Sanctus
      000,048Kb       0076-0088- SS Anacletus I - Vita - LT.doc Latin
           0088-0097- Clemens I, Sanctus, Martyres
000,042Kb       0088-0097- SS Clemens I - Vita - LT.doc
000,077Kb       0088-0097- SS Clemens I [Romanus]Two Epistles Concerning Virginity..doc English
           0097-0105- Evaristus, Sanctus, Martyres
           0105-0115- Alexander I, Sanctus, Martyres
           0115-0125- Sixtus I, Sanctus
           0125-0136- Telesphorus, Sanctus, Martyres
           0136-0140- Hyginus, Sanctus
           0140-0155- Pius I, Sanctus, Martyres
           0155-0166- Anicetus, Sanctus
           0166-0175- Soterius, Sanctus
           0175-0189- Eleutherius, Sanctus, Martyres
           0189-0199- Victor I, Sanctus, Martyres
           0199-0217- Zephyrinus, Sanctus, Martures
           0217-0222- Callixtus I, Sanctus
           0222-0230- Urbanus I, Sanctus
           0230-0235- Pontianus, Sanctus, Martyres
           0235-0236- Anterus, Sanctus
           0236-0250- Fabianus, Sanctus, Martyres
           0251-0253- Cornelius, Sanctus, Martyres
000,025Kb       0251-0253- SS Cornelius - Episotola ad Cyprianum - LT.doc Latin
000,039Kb       0251-0253- SS Cornelius I - Epistolæ - EN.doc English
           0253-0254- Lucius I, Sanctus
           0254-0257- Stephanus I, Sanctus
           0283-0296- Caius, Sanctus
           0296-0304- Marcellinus I, Sanctus
           0308-0309- Marcellus II, Sanctus
           0309-0310- Eusebius, Sanctus
           0311-0314- Miltiades, Sanctus
           0314-0335- Silvester I, Sanctus
           0335-0336- Marcus, Sanctus
           0337-0352- Iulius I, Sanctus
           0352-0366- Liberius, Sanctus
           0366-0383- Damasus I, Sanctus
           0384-0399- Siricius, Sanctus
           0399-0401- Anastasius I, Sanctus
           0401-0417- Innocentius I, Sanctus
           0417-0418- Zosimus, Sanctus
           0418-0422- Bonifacius I, Sanctus
           0422-0432- Caelestinus I, Sanctus
           0432-0440- Sixtus III, Sanctus
           0440-0461- Leo I, Magnus, Sanctus
           0461-0468- Hilarius, Sanctus
           0468-0483- Simplicius, Sanctus
           0483-0492- Felix III, Sanctus
           0492-0496- Gelasius I, Sanctus
           0496-0498- Anastasius II, Sanctus
           0498-0514- Symmachus, Sanctus
           0514-0523- Hormisdas, Sanctus
           0523-0526- Ioannes I, Sanctus, Martyres
           0526-0530- Felix IV, Sanctus
           0530-0532- Bonifacius II
           0533-0535- Ioannes II
           0535-0536- Agapetus I, Sanctus
           0536-0537- Silverius, Sanctus, Martyres
           0537-0555- Vigilius
           0556-0561- Pelagius I
           0561-0574- Ioannes III
           0575-0579- Benedictus I
           0579-0590- Pelagius II
           0590-0604- Gregorius I, Magnus, Sanctus
           0604-0606- Sabinianus
           0607-0607- Bonifacius III
           0608-0615- Bonifacius IV, Sanctus
           0615-0618- Adeodatus I, Sanctus
           0619-0625- Bonifacius V
           0625-0638- Honorius I
           0640-0640- Severinus
           0640-0642- Ioannes IV
           0642-0649- Theodorus I
           0649-0655- Martinus I, Sanctus, Martyres
           0655-0657- Eugenius I, Sanctus
           0657-0672- Vitalianus, Sanctus
           0672-0676- Adeodatus II
           0676-0678- Donus
           0678-0681- Agatho, Sanctus
           0682-0683- Leo II, Sanctus
           0684-0685- Benedictus II, Sanctus
           0685-0686- Ioannes V
           0686-0687- Conon
           0687-0701- Sergius I, Sanctus
           0701-0705- Ioannes VI
           0705-0709- Ioannes VII
           0709-0709- Sisinnius
           0709-0715- Constantinus
           0715-0731- Gregorius II, Sanctus
           0731-0741- Gregorius III, Sanctus
           0741-0752- Zacharias, Sanctus
           0752-0752- Stephanus II
           0752-0757- Stephanus III
           0757-0767- Paulus I, Sanctus
           0767-0772- Stephanus IV
           0772-0795- Hadrianus I
           0795-0816- Leo III, Sanctus
           0816-0817- Stephanus V
           0817-0824- Paschalis I, Sanctus
           0824-0827- Eugenius II
           0827-0827- Valentinus
           0827-0844- Gregorius IV
           0844-0847- Sergius II
           0847-0855- Leo IV, Sanctus
           0855-0858- Benedictus III
           0858-0867- Nicholaus I, Magnus, Sanctus
           0867-0872- Hadrianus II
           0872-0882- Ioannes VIII
           0882-0884- Marinus I
           0884-0885- Hadrianus III , Sanctus
           0885-0891- Stephanus VI
           0891-0896- Formosus
           0896-0896- Bonifacius VI
           0896-0897- Stephanus VII
           0897-0897- Romanus
           0897-0897- Theodorus II
           0898-0900- Ioannes IX
           0900-0903- Benedictus IV
           0903-0903- Leo V
           0903-0904- Christophorus
           0904-0911- Sergius III
           0911-0913- Anastasius III
           0913-0914- Lando
           0914-0928- Ioannes X
           0928-0929- Leo VI
           0929-0931- Stephanus VIII
           0931-0935- Ioannes XI
           0936-0939- Leo VII
           0939-0942- Stephanus IX
           0942-0946- Marinus II
           0946-0955- Agapetus II
           0955-0963- Ioannes XII
           0963-0964- Leo VIII
           0964-0964- Benedictus V
           0965-0965- Leo VIII
           0965-0972-Ioannes XIII
           0973-0983- Benedictus VII
           0983-0984- Ioannes XIV
           0985-0996- Ioannes XV
           0996-0999- Gregorius V
           0999-1003- Silvester II
           1003-1003- Ioannes XVII
           1003-1009- Ioannes XVIII
           1009-1012- Sergius IV
           1012-1024- Benedictus VIII
           1024-1032- Ioannes XIX
           1032-1045- Benedictus IX
           1045-1045- Silvester III
           1045-1046- Gregorius VI
           1046-1047- Clemens II
           1047-1048- Benedictus IX
           1048-1048- Damasus II
           1049-1054- Leo IX, Sanctus
           1055-1057- Victor II
           1057-1058- Stephanus X
           1059-1061- Nicholaus II
           1061-1073- Alexander II
           1073-1085- Gregorius VII, Sanctus
           1086-1087- Victor III, Beatus
           1088-1099- Urbanus II, Beatus
           1099-1118- Paschalis II
           1118-1119- Gelasius II
           1119-1124- Callistus II
           1124-1130- Honorius II
           1130-1143- Innocentius II
           1143-1144- Caelestinus II
           1144-1145- Lucius II
           1145-1153- Eugenius III, Beatus
           1153-1154- Anastasius IV
           1154-1159- Hadrianus IV
           1159-1181- Alexander III
           1181-1185- Lucius III
           1185-1187- Urbanus III
           1187-1187- Gregorius VIII
           1187-1191- Clemens III
           1191-1198- Caelestinus III
           1198-1216- Innocentius III
           1216-1227- Honorius III
           1227-1241- Gregorius IX
           1241-1241- Caelestinus IV
           1243-1254- Innocentius IV
           1254-1261- Alexander IV
           1261-1264- Urbanus IV
           1265-1268- Clemens IV
           1271-1276- Gregorio X, Beatus
           1276-1276- Hadrianus V
           1276-1276- Innocentius V, Beatus
           1276-1277- Ioannes XXI
           1277-1280- Nicholaus III
           1281-1285- Martinus IV
           1285-1287- Honorius IV
           1288-1292- Nicholaus IV
           1294-1294- Celestinus V, Sanctus
           1294-1303- Bonifacius VIII
           1303-1304- Benedictus XI, Beatus
           1305-1314- Clemens V
           1316-1334- Ioannes XXII
           1334-1342- Benedictus XII, Venerabilis
           1342-1352- Clemens VI
           1352-1362- Innocentius VI
           1362-1370- Urbanus V, Beatus
           1370-1378- Gregorius XI
           1378-1389- Urbanus VI
           1389-1404- Bonifacius IX
           1404-1406- Innocentius VII
           1406-1415- Gregorius XII
           1417-1431- Martinus V
           1431-1447- Eugenius IV
           1447-1455- Nicholaus V
           1455-1458- Callistus III
           1458-1464- Pius II
           1464-1471- Paulus II
           1471-1484- Sixtus IV
           1484-1492- Innocentius VIII
           1492-1503- Alessandrus VI
           1503-1503- Pius III
           1503-1513- Iulius II
           1513-1521- Leo X
           1522-1523- Hadrianus VI
           1523-1534- Clemens VII
           1534-1549- Paulus III
           1550-1555- Iulius III
           1555-1555- Marcellus II
           1555-1559- Paolus IV
           1559-1565- Pius IV
           1566-1572- Pius V, Sanctus
           1572-1585- Gregorius XIII
           1585-1590- Sixtus V
           1590-1590- Urbanus VII
           1590-1591- Gregorius XIV
           1591-1591- Innocentius IX
           1592-1605- Clemens VIII
           1605-1605- Leo XI
           1605-1621- Paulus V
           1621-1623- Gregorius XV
           1623-1644- Urbanus VIII
           1644-1655- Innocentius X
           1655-1667- Alessander VII
           1667-1669- Clemens IX
           1670-1676- Clemens X
           1676-1689- Innocentius XI, Beatus
           1689-1691- Alexander VIII
           1691-1700- Innocentius XII
           1700-1721- Clemens XI
           1721-1724- Innocentius XIII
           1724-1730- Benedictus XIV
           1730-1740- Clemens XII
           1740-1758- Benedictus XIV
           1758-1769- Clemens XIII
           1769-1774- Clemens XIV
           1775-1799- Pius VI
           1800-1823- Pius VII
           1823-1829- Leo XII
           1829-1830- Pius VIII
           1831-1846- Gregorius XVI
           1846-1878- Pius IX, Sanctus
           1878-1903- Leo XIII
           1903-1914- Pius X, Sanctus
           1914-1922- Benedictus XV
           1922-1939- Pius XI
           1939-1958- Pius XII, Venerabilis
           1958-1963- Ioannes XXIII, Beatus
           1963-1978- Paulus VI, Servus Dei
           1978-1978- Ioannes Paulus I, Servus Dei
           1978-2005- Ioannes Paulus II, Servus Dei
           2005-hodie- Benedictus XVI
           9999-9998- Pontificorum Vitae
           9999-9999- Enchiridion Symbolorum seu Denzinger

Magisterium Paparum. De Ecclæsiæ Catholicæ Magisterio, MULTILINGUAL CATHOLIC

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Eutychianus, Sanctus. Magisterium Paparum, De Ecclæsiæ Catholicæ Magisterio, MULTILINGUAL CATHOLIC | Language: Latin

Eutychianus, Sanctus.

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